How can we measure learning beyond just knowledge about academic content? KQED writer Katrina Schwartz ponders this provocative question. In her article, I was quoted as suggesting, “Ultimately what we want students to be able to do is solve problems they’ve never seen before.” I feel this resonates with the idea of transfer that was explored in a recent National Research Council report. I do believe that when students are engaging in challenging projects in class or in an internship (or even in a conference deep dive about lobsters), what we should try to measure is their ability to apply what they have learned to solve non-routine, novel problems they will likely face later in life.