Science education is facing dramatic change. The new A Framework for K-12 Science Education (hereafter, the framework) and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are designed to guide educators in significantly altering the way science is taught—from kindergarten through high school (K-12). The framework is aimed at making science education more closely resemble the way scientists actually work and think. It is also aimed at making instruction reflect research on learning that demonstrates the importance of building coherent understandings over time.